Help Wikipedia improve by adding precise citations! She died in Los Angeles on October 9, , at the age of In —, she was a visiting scholar at the Getty Research Institute. Her most important scholarly and theoretical work is generally considered to be the recent The Virtual Window: From Alberti to Microsoft, which synthesized her previous writing about movies, film, and television, and her long experience as a theorizer of forms of visual experience. Therein, she subjected the common linguistic tropes of visual representation, including "window," "screen", and "the virtual" to rigorous analysis, analysis that in many cases rendered commonly accepted definitions inadequate.

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About Ashiq Khondker M. She draws analogies between the figure of the framed window and the metaphysical framing of experience to provide an historical exegesis detailing the developments of primarily Western spectatorial experience in relation to how our perceptions of the world are structured. From here she examines the window in three separate, but sometimes converging, registers: the architectural e. Friedberg provides sub-chapters with the perspectives of other thinkers between her main chapters, resulting in a historical foreshortening of the past through a contemporary lens.

In this true sense of the term, all images that are mimetic e. In her chapter on The Frame, Friedberg points out that pictures and paintings were not always framed, and until between the 13th—15th century were predominantly site-specific and painted into the wall as frescoes. Although frames enabled the picture to be separated from the wall, they required the viewer to be immobilized in relation to the frame. This is true as well for moving pictures e.

For example, in a cinema theater, material space meets virtual space at the edge of the screen, providing another paradoxical tension between the materiality and immateriality of spectatorial experience. Wells novel, The Shape of Things to Come. The screen in its current form is no longer a light-reflecting material requiring depth in space — instead it is a light-emitting material getting flatter and thinner with each development.

In the case of video-conferencing, for example, the virtual mediation of the screen is directly more or less linking distinct but real time, space and sound. For further information, visit the companion web-site to the book: The Virtual Window Interactive.


The Virtual Window

Endorsement Small Arrow The digital revolution has globalized a word and a nation that Leon Battista Alberti first translated from the realm of building to that of representation in From linear perspective to moving pictures to split screens, from see-through to light-receiving and light-emitting devices, Friedberg brilliantly demonstrates that the virtual window has been the most successful single tool for mimesis, command, and control in the history of Western civilization. As we spend more and more of our time staring at the screens of movies, televisions, computers, and handheld devices—"windows" full of moving images, texts, and icons—how the world is framed has become as important as what is in the frame. In The Virtual Window, Anne Friedberg examines the window as metaphor, as architectural component, and as an opening to the dematerialized reality we see on the screen. In De pictura , Leon Battista Alberti famously instructed painters to consider the frame of the painting as an open window. And yet, notes Friedberg, for most of the twentieth century the dominant form of the moving image was a single image in a single frame. The fractured modernism exemplified by cubist painting, for example, remained largely confined to experimental, avant-garde work.


Review: Anne Friedberg’s “The Virtual Window”

Shelves: media From the introduction: The window is an opening, an aperture for light and ventilation. It opens it closes; it separates the spaces of here and there, inside and outside, in front of and behind. The window opens onto a three-dimensional world beyond: it is a membrane of where surface meets depth, where transparency meets its barriers. The window is also a frame, a proscenium: its edges hold a view in place. The window reduces the outside to a two-dimensional surface; the window becomes a screen.


Anne Friedberg


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