Samugis The method of claim 24, wherein the at least one additional polar solvent is selected from the group consisting asteriscuss glycerin, ethanol, propylene glycol, butylene glycol, methanol, and acetone. The assay measures the amount of 8-oxo-dG bases produced as a result of exposure to the cigarette smoke condensate, and a decrease in the values recorded imply a reduction in DNA damage. According to certain exemplary embodiments, the polar solvent comprises water and at least one additional polar solvent selected from the group consisting of 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane also known as glycerin or glycerolethanol, propylene glycol, butylene glycol, methanol, and acetone. According to certain embodiments, the pollutant is a smoke-related substance, particularly a smoke-related substance that damages epithelial cells.

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BP , Mohammadia , Morocco. Departament de Farmacologia. Twenty eight compound accounting The oxygenated sesquiterpenes 6-oxocyclonerolidol The essential oil was tested for antifungal activity through mycelial growth inhibition tests in vitro against three agricultural pathogenic fungi: Penicillium digitatum, P. The essential oil at , , , , , and ppm was highly effective against mycelial growth of P. Complete inhibition was also observed at , , , , and ppm concentrations of the essential oil from the first day of incubation for P.

Asteriscus graveolens subsp. Nules inoculated with P. In addition, the oil was subjected to screening for its possible antioxidant activity. For that, the in vitro assay based on the scavenging of the stable radical 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH was used. The Asteriscus graveolens subsp. It inhibition percentage of free radical was slightly lower than that of BHT the control compound for all concentrations used.

Our findings demonstrate that Asteriscus graveolens subsp. Keywords: Medicinal plant, antifungal activity, antioxidant activity, citrus fruits, natural product. Introduction Fruits and vegetables are often susceptible to be atracked by phytopathogenic fungi, which affect their quality. To prevent the development of this pathogen and limit losses in commercial fruit shipments, treatment with chemical fungicides is a widely used procedure.

However, this treatment causes serious problems, such as fungicide residues remaining on the fruit Cabras et al. Various Penicillium spp. Post-harvest losses due to blue mold can be significant. Botrytis cinerea Pers: Fr.

Grey mold is particularly destructive on greenhouse crops Elad Frequent applications of the most effective fungicides have resulted in the selection and predominance of fungicide resistant strains. Elad et al. Markets in industrialized countries obviously look chemical-free in both fresh or processed fruits and vegetables. To respond to this demand, several studies on the activity of essential oils against B.

The essential oil composition of the aerial parts of Asteriscus graveolens subsp. Also in vivo assays have been carried out to control P. In addition, the kinetics of extraction by hydrodistillation and the fungistatic or fungicidal effects of the essential oil has been conducted. Moreover, as many authors have reported antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties by essential oils Maestri et al.

Materials and methods 2. The plant was taxonomically identified by B. A voucher specimen was deposited at the herbarium of the laboratory of vegetable biotechnology Faculty of Science, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir. In order to optimize the extraction time, we studied the kinetics of essential oil yield compared to dry matter. Split mode injection ratio was employed.

The individual compounds were identified by MS and their identity was confirmed by comparison of their RIs, relative to C8-C32 n-alkanes, and mass spectra with those of authentic samples or with data already available in the NIST Mass Spectral Library and in the literature Adams The oil prepared as described above was mixed with sterile molten PDA to obtain final concentrations of 0, 50, , , , , , , and ppm. Aliquots of 20 mL of solution were immediately dispensed to Petri dishes which were seeded with 6 mm diameter mycelium from the edge of 7-day-old P.

Transfer experiments To distinguish between the fungistatic and the fungicidal effects of the essential oil on the target organism, a transfer experiment was done. Fungal growth was determined by measuring the radial growth of the fungi. Fruits were uniform in size and free from physical damage or disease symptoms. They were placed in 2 Journal of Natural Sciences Research www. Clementine fruits were wounded with a sterile puncher on their peel at the equatorial region, to make one wound 2 mm deep and 4 mm wide per fruit.

The conidial concentration was determined using a Thoma slide. Clementine fruits were observed daily for symptoms, and the percentage of decayed fruits was determined after 10 days. After an incubation period of 30 minutes in the dark at ambient temperature, the absorbance is read at nm wavelength.

The inhibition of free radical DPPH by BHT butylhydroxytoluene, reference antioxidant compound was also analyzed with the same concentrations and the same conditions for comparison. All tests were performed in triplicate for each concentration.

Results and discussion 3. Thus, we proposed to fix the optimum time of Asteriscus graveolens subsp. Figure 1: Kinetics of extraction by steam distillation of essential oil Asteriscus graveolens subsp.

Compounds are listed as homologous series of monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated 3 Journal of Natural Sciences Research www. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes was the main fraction Other oxygenated sesquiterpenes, humulene epoxyde II 3. Table 1.

Chemical composition of essential oil extracted from the aerial part of Asteriscus graveolens subsp. For all fungi tested, antifungal activity increased with increasing concentrations of the oil. Complete inhibition was observed at , , , , , and ppm concentrations of the essential oil from the first day of incubation for P. For the same fungus, the doses 50 and ppm begin to take effect until after the third day to reach an inhibitory power of only At ppm, the antifungal effect of this fungus that begins on the third day with an inhibition of At 50 and ppm, the essential oil does not show a significant effect on P.

This effect does not exceed 2. A significant difference was found between the magnitude and evolution of the effects of different doses tested on Botrytis cinerea Figure 4 and Table 2. The intensity of this effect depends strongly on the dose used and the incubation period.

Thus, complete inhibition was observed for doses , and ppm on the first day. At the other concentrations the essential oil had moderate activity ranging from The results showed that mycelial growth returns after the disc has been exposed to the essential oil for 1, 3, 6 and 12 days. Thus, Asteriscus graveolens subsp. The statistical study showed that different concentrations of Asteriscus graveolens subsp. Its effectiveness might be due to its high levels of oxygenated sesquiterpenes.

Previous studies showed that essential oils with large amount of phenolic compounds thymol and carvacrol have strong antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Bouchra et al. A wealth of 6-oxocyclonerolidol in Asteriscus graveolens subsp. Indeed, Znini et al. Another study presented by Melekmi et al. Mycelial growth of Penicillium digitatum measured daily during seven days of incubation with different concentrations of Asteriscus graveolens subsp.

Mycelial growth of Penicillium expansum measured daily during seven days of incubation with different concentrations of Asteriscus graveolens subsp. Mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea measured daily during seven days of incubation with different concentrations of Asteriscus graveolens subsp. Table 2. Percent of inhibition of radial growth of Penicillium digitatum, P. Fungal Essential oil concentration species 50 ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm B. Figure 5 shows a significant reduction of spores of P.

A significant increase during the 10 days of incubation was observed for the control. The inhibitory effect of Asteriscus graveolens subsp. Moreover, after 10 days of incubation, a reduction of the percentage inhibition of P. The percentage of this inhibition was estimated at Indeed, Alilou et al. This decrease in the percentage of inhibition could be explained by the fungistatic effect of Asteriscus graveolens subsp. Their effectiveness could be due to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes in the essential oils.

Several authors have shown that essential oils and their constituents have significant potential as antimicrobial agents and antifungal agents in several industrial and medical Baser et al.

Another study by Wilson et al. In conclusion, further studies will be carried out to determine the effect of this essential oil on the germination of P. Figure 5. In vivo antifungal activity of different concentrations of Asteriscus graveolens subsp.

From the absorbance values obtained, we calculated the percentage of DPPH-scavenging using the formula given in material and methods section antioxidant activity.

The results obtained during the test measurement of the percentage of inhibition of DPPH are recorded in Figure 6. It shows that this percentage inhibition increases with increasing concentration for each essential oils or BHT reference antioxidant compound. The percentage inhibition of free radical for essential oils studied is slightly lower than that of BHT for all concentrations used. For example, a concentration of 0.

The essential oil of Asteriscus graveolens subsp.


Asteriscus graveolens Less.

Tat Symptoms such as nose and throat irritation, followed by bronchoconstriction and dyspnoea, especially in asthmatic individuals, are usually experienced after exposure to increased levels of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and certain heavy metals such as arsenic, nickel or vanadium. Reactive oxygen species ROS and free radicals associated with ROS are associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. These have been shown to lead to transepidermal water loss, degeneration of connective tissue in the skin and an increase in MMPs metalloproteinases -enzymes which break down connective skin tissue Jorgensen L N K et al. Non-limiting examples of excipients in liquids include water, glycerin, propylene glycol, sweet-taste syrup, ethanol, fatty oil, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol and sorbitol.





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