Synopsis[ edit ] Mises sees economic calculation as the most fundamental problem in economics. The economic problem to Mises is that of action. Man acts to dispel feelings of uneasiness, but can only succeed in acting if he comprehends causal connections between the ends that he wants to satisfy, and available means. The fact that man resides in a world of causality means that he faces definite choices as to how he satisfies his ends. Human action is an application of human reason to select the best means of satisfying ends.
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Synopsis[ edit ] Mises sees economic calculation as the most fundamental problem in economics. The economic problem to Mises is that of action. Man acts to dispel feelings of uneasiness, but can only succeed in acting if he comprehends causal connections between the ends that he wants to satisfy, and available means.
The fact that man resides in a world of causality means that he faces definite choices as to how he satisfies his ends. Human action is an application of human reason to select the best means of satisfying ends. The reasoning mind evaluates and grades different options. This is economic calculation. Economic calculation is common to all people.
Mises insisted that the logical structure of human minds is the same for everybody. Of course, this is not to say that all minds are the same. Individuals make different value judgments and possess different data, but logic is the same for all. Human reason and economic calculation have limitations, but Mises sees no alternative to economic calculation as a means of using scarce resources to improve our well being.
Human action concerns dynamics. The opposite to action is not inaction. Rather, the opposite to action is contentment. In a fully contented state there would be no action, no effort to change the existing order of things which might be changed by merely ceasing to do some things. Man acts because he is never fully satisfied, and will never stop because he can never be fully satisfied.
This might seem like a simple point, but modern economics is built upon ideas of contentment-equilibrium analysis and indifference conditions. It is true that some economists construct models of dynamic equilibrium, but the idea of a dynamic equilibrium is oxymoronic to Mises. An actual equilibrium may involve a recurring cycle, but not true dynamics.
True dynamics involve non-repeating evolutionary change. Mises explains dynamic change in terms of "the plain state of rest. A plain state of rest is a temporary and imperfect equilibrium deriving from past human plans.
Though any set of plans is imperfect, to act means attempting to improve each successive set of plans. Movement from one plain state of rest to another represents the process of change, either evolutionary or devolutionary. Mises links progress and profits. Profits earned from voluntary trades are the indicator of economic success. It is monetary calculation of profits that indicates whether an enterprise has generated a net increase in consumer well being over true economic costs.
The close association that Mises draws between economic calculation and monetary calculation leads him to conclude that market prices upon which monetary profits are calculated are indispensable to progress in bettering the human condition. Without markets there are no prices, and without prices there is no economic calculation. Monetary calculation is vitally important.
Mises stresses the importance of entrepreneurship because only entrepreneurs actually do monetary calculation. This fact puts entrepreneurs at the center of all progress and failure. Entrepreneurs who estimate costs more correctly than their rivals earn high profits while also serving consumers.
Such people rise to top positions in industry. Entrepreneurs who err seriously in their calculations experience financial losses and cease to direct production. Mises described this market test of entrepreneurial skills as the only process of trial and error that really matters. The concepts of monetary calculation, financial speculation , and entrepreneurship form the basis for the von Mises critique of socialism. Human Action was not a direct translation of the earlier work, but used its general framework and expanded on it.
A revised and expanded second edition came out in This edition, also by the Yale University Press, was full of typographical errors, and another one had to be printed quickly afterwards by another editor. A posthumous fourth edition was published in , with revisions by Bettina B. In , the Institute reissued the first edition as a portable "Pocket Edition".
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Ecco il manifesto di Mises che previde la fine dell'Urss