Qui Spallanzani aveva un proprio laboratorio e il suo personale museo di storia naturale. Nel tardo pomeriggio riprendeva il suo lavoro di sperimentazione e stesura delle memorie scientifiche, che concludeva nella serata, dopo cena. Martino a Pavia per un tumore alla vescica, malattia di cui soffriva da tempo. Si suppone sia stato sepolto al cimitero maggiore S. Anche uno dei collegi universitari di recente istituzione porta il nome del nostro scienziato. Aveva alta la fronte, neri, e vivaci ed espressivi gli occhi, bruna la carnagione, robusto il temperamento.
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The statue of Spallanzani in Scandiano has him examining a frog through a magnifying glass. Plaque dedicated to Spallanzani in Portovenere , Italy Dissertazioni di fisica animale e vegetabile, Spallanzani was born in Scandiano in the modern province of Reggio Emilia to Gianniccolo Spallanzani and Lucia Zigliani. His father, a lawyer by profession, was not impressed with young Spallanzani who spent more time with small animals than studies.
With financial support from Vallisnieri Foundation, his father enrolled him to the Jesuit Seminary at age When he was asked to join the order, he refused. Persuaded by his father and with the help of Monsignor Castelvetro, the Bishop of Reggio, he studied law at the University of Bologna , which he gave up soon and turned to science.
Here, his famous kinswoman, Laura Bassi , was professor of physics and it is to her influence that his scientific impulse has been usually attributed. With her he studied natural philosophy and mathematics , and gave also great attention to languages, both ancient and modern, but soon abandoned them.
It took him a good friend Antonio Vallisnieri jr. There he also served as a priest of the Congregation Beata Vergine and S. His return home was almost a triumphal progress: at Vienna he was cordially received by Joseph II and on reaching Pavia he was met with acclamations outside the city gates by the students of the university.
During the following year his students exceeded five hundred. A judicial investigation speedily cleared his honour to the satisfaction of some of his accusers. When his colleague published the remarkable specimen Spallanzani revealed the joke, resulting in wide ridicule and humiliation. In , Spallanzani received an offer for professor at the National Museum of Natural History, France in Paris, but declined due to his age.
He died from bladder cancer on 12 February , in Pavia. After his death, his bladder was removed for study by his colleagues, after which it was placed on public display in a museum in Pavia, where it remains to this day. Yet greater qualities were by no means lacking. His life was one of incessant eager questioning of nature on all sides, and his many and varied works all bear the stamp of a fresh and original genius, capable of stating and solving problems in all departments of science—at one time finding the true explanation of stone skipping formerly attributed to the elasticity of water and at another helping to lay the foundations of our modern volcanology and meteorology.
Needham and Buffon which was the first systemtic rebuttal of the theory of the spontaneous generation. As the microbes did not re-appear as long as the material was hermetically sealed, he proposed that microbes move through the air and that they could be killed through boiling. Needham argued that experiments destroyed the "vegetative force" that was required for spontaneous generation to occur.
Spallanzani paved the way for research by Louis Pasteur , who defeated the theory of spontaneous generation almost a century later. Here he first interpreted the process of digestion , which he proved to be no mere mechanical process of trituration — that is, of grinding up the food — but one of actual chemical solution , taking place primarily in the stomach, by the action of the gastric juice.
He was the first to show that fertilisation requires both spermatozoa and an ovum. He was the first to perform in vitro fertilization , with frogs, and an artificial insemination , using a dog. In , he performed filtration experiment in which he successfully separated seminal fluid of frogs — a liquid portion and a gelatinous animalcule spermatozoa portion. But then he assumed that it was the liquid part which could induce fertilisation.
A staunch ovist, he believed that animal form was already developed in the eggs and fertilisation by semen was only an activation for growth. He managed to capture three wild bats in Scandiono, and performed similar experiment, on which he wrote on 20 August : Having seen this, the candle was taken away, and for my eyes like for those of my brother and cousins we were in complete darkness.
Yet the animals continued to fly around as before and never struck against obstacles, nor did they fall down, as would have happened with a night-bird. Thus a place which we believe to be completely dark is not at all so, because bats certainly could not see without light.
A few days later he took two bats and covered their eyes with opaque disc made of birdlime. To his astonishment, both bats flew completely normally. He went further by surgically removing the eyeballs of one bat, which he observed as: [The bat] flew quickly, following the different subterranean pathways from one end to the other with the speed and sureness of an uninjured bat.
More than once the animal landed on the walls and at the roof of the sotterranei and finally it landed in a hole in the ceiling two inches wide, hiding itself there immediately.
My astonishment at this bat which absolutely could see although deprived of its eyes is inexpressible. At the time other scientists were sceptical and ridiculed his findings. He discovered that bat flight was disoriented when their ears were plugged. He repeated his experiments by using improved ear plugs using turpentine , wax, pomatum or tinder mixed with water, to find that blinded bats could not navigate without hearing.
After these operations, he became convinced that hearing was fundamental to normal bat flight, upon which he noted: This experiment, which is so decisively in favor of hearing Professor Jurine, confirming by many examples those which I have done, and varied in many ways, establish without doubt the influence of the ear in the flight of blinded bats.
Can it then still be said that His concern with fossil witness how, in the style of the eighteenth century, Spallanzani integrated studies of the three kingdoms of nature.
Lazzaro Spallanzani Facts
His investigations into the development of microscopic life in nutrient culture solutions paved the way for the research of Louis Pasteur. Spallanzani was the son of a distinguished lawyer. He attended the Jesuit college at Reggio, where he received a sound education in the classics and philosophy. He was invited to join the order, but, although he was eventually ordained in , he declined this offer and went to Bologna to study law.
Lazzaro Spallanzani Biografia, Experimentos
The statue of Spallanzani in Scandiano has him examining a frog through a magnifying glass. Plaque dedicated to Spallanzani in Portovenere , Italy Dissertazioni di fisica animale e vegetabile, Spallanzani was born in Scandiano in the modern province of Reggio Emilia to Gianniccolo Spallanzani and Lucia Zigliani. His father, a lawyer by profession, was not impressed with young Spallanzani who spent more time with small animals than studies. With financial support from Vallisnieri Foundation, his father enrolled him to the Jesuit Seminary at age When he was asked to join the order, he refused. Persuaded by his father and with the help of Monsignor Castelvetro, the Bishop of Reggio, he studied law at the University of Bologna , which he gave up soon and turned to science.
Spallanzani, Lázaro (1729-1799).