Dividivi Fr. Origin and geographic distribution Caesalpinia coriaria is native to tropical America and the West Indies. It has been introduced as an ornamental in other tropical regions and sometimes also for tanning, e. Uses The pods of Caesalpinia coriaria are very rich in tannin and are used in the tanning industry.

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Dividivi Fr. Origin and geographic distribution Caesalpinia coriaria is native to tropical America and the West Indies. It has been introduced as an ornamental in other tropical regions and sometimes also for tanning, e. Uses The pods of Caesalpinia coriaria are very rich in tannin and are used in the tanning industry. The tan stuff from the pods is generally used as a blend for tanning leather, mixed with other tanning materials.

Divi-divi is often used in rapid drum tanning of light leathers and in leather dressing. The pods are also used to prepare a blackish or bluish dye for cotton and wool and a black ink, used e. They are sometimes employed as a mordant for dyeing vegetable fibres with other dyes. In medicine the pods are used as an antiperiodic and for dressing sores. The wood has been reported as having been used in Andhra Pradesh India as source of a red dye.

Caesalpinia coriaria is used as an ornamental and shade plant and its leaves as a mulch. Production and international trade Caesalpinia coriaria has been used in Central America for many centuries as a tanning material. Commercial supplies of divi-divi pods were obtained almost entirely from tropical America with Venezuela and Colombia as the major suppliers.

Recent figures are not available, but in the s annual exports of dry fruits varied from —10, t from Venezuela and from — t from Colombia. The largest consumers were the United States and Germany. The use of divi-divi as a tanning material strongly declined after in favour of other vegetable materials and synthetic tanning substances.

Divi-divi extracts are liable to deteriorate rapidly; especially in hot climates fermentation takes place readily because of the large amount of sugars present; this often results in reddish stains in the leather. Divi-divi extracts produce a pale coloured leather, which is easily affected by atmospheric conditions, being soft and spongy under damp conditions and lacking pliability under dry conditions. Because of these disadvantages, divi-divi is usually used in mixtures with other tanning substances.

When tested in ponds, the tannin from divi-divi pods showed algicidal activity. Aucubin compounds have been identified. The wood of Caesalpinia coriaria is very hard, reddish brown. Oven-dried fruits applied at 2. Inflorescence an axillary raceme or panicle 2—4 cm long. Seeds ellipsoid or reniform, 6—7 mm long, glossy brown.

Other botanical information The large genus Caesalpinia about species is pantropical, the greater part of the species occurring in South and Central America. In tropical Africa about 25 species are indigenous, naturalized or cultivated.

Ecology Caesalpinia coriaria tolerates a wide range of soil types and climates. It grows on rich clay soils and poor sandy soils with pH 4. In natural conditions in Central and South America, it is found in semi-arid, open country.

Trees are reported to yield less under very moist tropical conditions than under drier conditions. At higher altitudes they do not yield well either. Management Divi-divi is propagated by seed. During the first two years, watering is necessary in the dry season. Mature trees require very little care, and forage crops can be planted between the trees. Trees are relatively slow growing and generally commence flowering 5—7 years after sowing.

Full crops of pods are produced after about 20 years. Some fungi are known to attack divi-divi: Fomes lucidus, Micropeltis domingensis and Zignoella caesalpiniae. The pods of divi-divi are collected before or after they drop from the tree. Because divi-divi pods are curved, they are voluminous, which makes transport expensive. The pods are usually packed in fine mesh bags. The tannins can easily be extracted. They are mainly present in the white powdery tissue just below the epidermis of the pod, and this tissue is easily collected when the dry pods are ruptured.

The powder has the drawback of being slightly hygroscopic and should be packed in sealed containers. It is susceptible to rapid deterioration but fermentation can be minimized by the use of antiseptics. Genetic resources Caesalpinia coriaria is widespread and not in danger of genetic erosion. Germplasm collections are not known to exist. Prospects In Africa Caesalpinia coriaria is not well known as a tannin-producing plant and it is not likely that it will become important in the future.

However, the fact that it is a source of reasonable quality tanning material, especially when used in mixtures, and a good source of black dye and ink, may offer possibilities since sustainable production is possible, the part of the plant used being the seeded fruits.

Major references Boonkerd, T. Caesalpinia L. In: Lemmens, R. Dye and tannin producing plants. Pudoc, Wageningen, Netherlands. CSIR, The wealth of India. A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products. Raw materials. Volume 2: C. Duke, J.

Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. Other references Bali, H. Preliminary screening of some plants for molluscicidal activity against two snail species. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences — Brenan, J. Leguminosae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae. In: Milne-Redhead, E. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Cardon, D. Le monde des teintures naturelles. Belin, Paris, France. Ibnu Utomo, B. In: van Valkenburg, J. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. Polhill, R.

In: Bosser, J. Flore des Mascareignes. Famille Sources of illustration Boonkerd, T. Author s P. Caesalpinia coriaria Jacq. In: Jansen, P. Accessed 2 March See the Prota4U database.



Its common names include spiny holdback, tara, taya, and algarroba tanino Peru. Leaves are alternate, evergreen, lacking stipules , bipinnate , and lacking petiolar and rachis glands. Flowers are yellow to orange with 6- to 7-mm petals ; the lowest sepal is boat-shaped with many long marginal teeth; stamens are yellow, irregular in length and barely protruding. It has been introduced in drier parts of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa and has become naturalized in California. Mature pods are usually harvested by hand and typically sun dried before processing. If well irrigated, trees can continue to produce for another 80 years, though their highest production is between 15 and 65 years of age. Some producers have their own plantations to guarantee constant quality.


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