Praise for Agile Software Requirements In my opinion, there is no book out there that more artfully addresses the specific needs of agile teams, programs, and portfolios all in one. I believe this book is an organizational necessity for any enterprise. Leffingwells teachings have been very influential and inspiring to our organization. They have allowed us to make critical cultural changes to the way we approach software development by following the framework hes outlined here. It has been an extraordinary experience.

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She works as a software engineer in a research laboratory, and her customers often give her project assignments that she describes as "Bring me a rock. Ultimately, it may turn out that the customer was thinking all along of a small blue marble.

At each subsequent meeting with the customer, the developer may exclaim, "You want it to do what? To complicate matters, in most real projects, more than two individuals are involved. In addition to the customer and the developer-who may, of course, have very different names and titles-there are likely to be marketing people, testing and quality assurance people, product managers, general managers, and a variety of "stakeholders" whose day-to-day operations will be affected by the development of the new system.

Moreover, for thousands of companies today, those companies whose business is dedicated exclusively to the development and sales of software products, their entire business focuses on making their products-intangible and abstract as they are-into tangible rocks that their customers can purchase, evaluate, and apply.

Software systems, by their nature, are intangible, abstract, complex, and-in theory, at least-"soft" and infinitely changeable. So, if the customer begins articulating vague requirements for a "rock system," he often does this on the assumption that he can clarify, change, and fill in the details as time goes on. Preventing these failures and providing a rational approach for building the system the customer does want is the objective of this book. This is a book about managing requirements for complex software applications.

As such, this book is written for every member of the software team analysts, developers, tester and QA personnel, project management, product management, documentation folks, and the like as well as members of the external "customer" team users and other stakeholders, marketing, and management -everyone, really, who has a stake in the definition and delivery of the software system. The stand-alone, hero programmer is an anachronism of the past: May he rest in peace.

The building inspector and the next-door neighbors are among the other stakeholders who, along with the person who intends to pay for and inhabit the house, will determine whether the finished house meets their needs.

The requirements of a house might be described, at least in part, with a set of blueprints and a list of specifications; similarly, a software system can be described with models and diagrams. But just as the blueprints for a house are intended as a communication and negotiation mechanism between laypeople and engineers-and lawyers and inspectors and nosy neighbors-so the technical diagrams associated with a software system can also be created in such a way that "ordinary" people can understand them.

The prospective house buyer, for example, can write a requirement in ordinary English that says, "My house must have three bedrooms, and it must have a garage large enough to hold two cars and six bicycles. In other cases, it would be more helpful to have a picture of what kind of fireplace the homeowner had in mind. Many of the team skills you will need to master in order to address this challenge can also be described in terms of practical, commonsense advice.

They have organized the book into eight parts. Chapter 1 reviews the systems development "challenge. Chapter 3 provides an overview of some of the software development models in use today and concludes with a recommendation for an iterative process, one that facilitates additional requirements discovery along the way.

Chapter 4 provides a brief introduction to some of the characteristics of modern software teams so they can relate the team skills that will be developed to the team context, wherein the skills must be applied. Each of the next six major parts is intended to help you and your team understand and master one of the six requisite team skills for effective requirements management.

NOTE: The book is structured on the six requisite team skills for effective requirements management. That is addressed in Team Skill 1, Analyzing the Problem.

And, since requirements for any nontrivial application cannot be frozen in time, the authors describe ways in which the team can actively manage change without destroying the system under construction.

Team Skill 6 concludes with a chapter that suggests ways in which the requirements gathering process can improve the quality of the overall project. Special emphasis is given to the iterative nature of modern program development processes and how this yields substantial opportunities for an ongoing quality assessment.

After these descriptions of specific requirements management techniques, the authors briefly review the evolving methods of Extreme Programming and Agile Methods and demonstrate ways of integrating effective requirements management practices into the framework of these software development methods.

Finally, in Chapter 31 the authors provide a prescription that you and your team can use to manage requirements in your next project. I hope that, armed with these newly acquired team skills, you too will be able to build the perfect rock or marble.

Nevertheless, the skills defined in this book will go a long way toward reducing the risk and thereby helping you achieve the success you deserve. Index Download the Index file related to this title.


Dean Leffingwell, Don Widrig

The primary focus in this book is on how households adjust these expenditures in response to changes in price and income. Econometric estimates of price and income elasticities are obtained for an exhaustive array of goods and services using data from surveys conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, providing a better understanding of consumer demand. Practical models for forecasting future price and income elasticities are also demonstrated. Fully revised with over a dozen new chapters and appendices, the book revisits the original Taylor-Houthakker models while examining new material as well, such as the use of quantile regression and the stationarity of consumer preference. It also explores the emerging connection between neuroscience and consumer behavior, integrating the economic literature on demand theory with psychology literature.


Managing Software Requirements: A Use Case Approach, Second Edition by Dean Leffingwell, Don Widrig

On to the Next Release! Appendix B. Vision Document Template. Appendix C. Use-Case Specification Template. Appendix D. Supplementary Specification Template.

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