Apr 27, Joselito Honestly and Brilliantly rated it it was amazing When you open this book for the first time, do not make the mistake of expecting to read a novel with a strightforward plot, or even a series of connected stories. Prepare yourself instead to read a dream. Have you ever heard of the language called "Quechua"? I had not, until I stumbled upon this book. One of these countries is Peru.
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The book appeared when Indigenismo was in full swing in Peru. Education Minister at the time, Luis E. This Ernesto is unmistakably the same as the Deep Rivers character. A text of Arguedas which was published in in the form of autobiography Las Moradas, vol. II, No. The push to complete the novel emerged years later in , while conducting ethnographic fieldwork in the Mantaro Valley.
He then worked hard to its completion. Plot[ edit ] The novel describes the maturation process of Ernesto, a year-old who must confront the injustices of the adult world that he becomes a part of, and who is required to take sides.
The story begins in Cuzco, where Ernesto and his father Gabriel arrive. But he does not succeed. He then recommences his wanderings through many cities and villages of southern Peru. In Abancay, Ernesto is enrolled as a boarder at a religious school while his father continues his travels in search of work. Ernesto then has to live with the boarding students who are a microcosm of Peruvian society and where cruel and violent behaviour is the norm.
Later, outside the boundaries of the school, a group of chicheras mutiny, demanding the distribution of salt, and a mass of Indian peasants enter the city to ask for a mass for the victims of epidemic typhus. This pushes Ernesto into a profound awareness: he must choose the values of liberation rather than economic security.
This completes a phase of the learning process. The novel ends when Ernesto leaves Abancay and goes to a ranch owned by "El Viejo", situated in the valley of the Apurimac, awaiting the return of his father. Offering the story from the perspective of an introverted teenage character, to some extent autobiographical, this narrative of internal examination presents however, from its first line, a distressing reflection on reality, on the nature of the Andean world and its relations with westernized sectors.
One of the merits of Deep Rivers is its achievement of a high degree of consistency between the two facets of the text. The chapters recounting the revolt of the chicheras and settlers insist on showing that hidden capacity. Arguedas liked to point out that the action of the settlers, although treated in the novel as magical motivations, foreshadowed the peasant uprisings that occurred in reality a few years later.
The subjective side of Deep Rivers is focused on the efforts of the protagonist to understand the world around him, and to place himself within it as a living whole. Such a project is in extreme conflict: on one hand, on the level of subjectivity, a mythical vision of indigenous descent affirming the unity of the universe and the sharing of all items in a harmonious destiny works; on the other hand, contrary to the above, the experience of immediate reality highlights the deep division in the world and its history of tears and strife, stories that force the protagonist to choose in favor of one side of reality and fight against the other.
His ideal of integration, a most passionate one, as it originates in his fragmented interiority, is doomed to failure. To participate in the world is not to live in harmony; it is exactly the opposite, to internalize the conflicts of reality. This is the hard lesson that Deep Rivers chronicles. On the other hand, in order to capture the double movement of convergence and dispersion, or unity and disharmony, this novel builds a dense and beautiful symbolic system that creatively retells certain indigenous myths and gives them fresh life.
In this respect the novel functions as a dazzling lyrical operation. Deep Rivers is not the most important work of Arguedas; it is however, without a doubt, the most beautiful and perfect.
Vargas Llosa says of it: "With the stories Agua Water and Los rios profundos Deep Rivers , after the progress he had made Yawar Fiesta, Arguedas had perfected his style as much as his technical resources, which, without spectacular innovations or experimental daring, still reached full functionality in this novel.
Vargas Llosa also highlights Arguedas mastery of the Spanish language in this novel to reach a style of great artistic effectiveness. It is a functional and flexible Spanish, which brings to light the different shades of a plurality of issues, people and peculiarities of the world exposed in the work. Arguedas, a bilingual writer, succeeds in "quechuization" of Spanish: what some characters say in Quechua is translated to Spanish, sometimes including those speeches in italics in the original language.
This does not happen often, but as often as needed to make the reader see that these are two cultures with two different languages. Four round holes, like eyes, emanated from the sphere. There is also a more powerful type of zumbayllu made from a deformed object but without being round winku and with the quality of sorcery layka. For Ernesto, the zumbayllu is the ideal instrument for capturing the interplay between objects.
As such, its functions are varied, but it is first used to send messages to distant places. Ernesto believes that his voice can reach the ears of his absent father by chanting the zumbayllu. It is also a pacifying object, a symbol of restoring order, as in the episode where Ernesto gives his zumbayllu to Anauco.
But it is also a purifying element of negative spaces, and it is under that belief that Ernesto buries his zumbayllu in the backyard of the toilets, in the same place where older inmates sexually abused a mentally disabled woman. Lima, P. Villanueva Editor,
Learn how and when to remove this template message Jose Maria Arguedas was born on 18 January in Andahuaylas , a province in the southern Peruvian Andes. He later took up studies in Ethnology, receiving his degree in and his doctorate in Between and he was sent to prison for protesting an envoy sent to Peru by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Arguedas also worked for the Ministry of Education, where he put into practice his interests in preserving and promoting Peruvian culture, in particular traditional Andean music and dance.
José María Arguedas
His mother died when Arguedas was two years old, and his father, an itinerant lawyer whose clients were mostly Indians and mestizos, remarried shortly thereafter. According to Arguedas, his stepmother and her family despised him and relegated him to the Indian kitchen of the household, where he was welcomed and loved by the Indian servants and where he learned the Quechua language. For the rest of his life, Arguedas felt a filial attachment to the Quechua that helped shape his work. Frustrated by the discrimination they endured, and suffering clinical depression, Arguedas committed suicide in Since the s, highly organized agricultural societies had existed in the highlands and coastal regions of Peru. In the s a relatively new culture emerged in the southern highlands, centered at Cuzco. Its members came to be known as the Incas a term now used variously for the culture itself, for its upper-class noble families, or for its supreme ruler.